Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation and Operations
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Wayside Technology Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) requires management to make extensive use of certain estimates and assumptions which affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The significant areas of estimation include but are not limited to accounting for allowance for doubtful accounts, sales returns, discount rates applicable to long term receivables, inventory obsolescence, income taxes, depreciation, contingencies and stock-based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Net Income Per Common Share
The Company calculates earnings per share in accordance with Financial Accounting Standards Board “FASB”ASC Topic 260, “Earnings Per Share”. Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of shares of Common Stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is calculated by dividing net income attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding, adjusted for potentially dilutive securities including unexercised stock option grants and nonvested shares of restricted stock.
A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted per share computations follows:
The Company considers all liquid short-term investments with original maturities of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable principally represents amounts collectible from our customers. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers but generally does not require collateral to support any outstanding obligation.
Allowance for Accounts Receivable
We provide allowances for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We take into consideration the overall quality and aging of the receivable portfolio along with specifically identified customer risks. If actual customer payment performance were to deteriorate to an extent not expected, additional allowances may be required. At the time of sale, we record an estimate for sales returns based on historical experience. If actual sales returns are greater than estimated by management, additional expense may be incurred.
Foreign Currency Translation
Assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries have been translated at the end of the reporting period exchange rates, and related revenues and expenses have been translated at average rates of exchange in effect during the period. Cumulative translation adjustments have been classified within accumulated other comprehensive income, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity in accordance FASB ASC Topic No. 220, “Comprehensive Income”.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations in credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents.
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited primarily in banking institutions with global operations. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
The carrying amounts of financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximated fair value as of December 31, 2016 and 2015, because of the relative short maturity of these instruments. The Company’s accounts receivable long-term is discounted to their present value at prevailing market rates at the time of sale which approximates fair value as of December 31, 2016 and 2015.
Inventory, consisting primarily of finished products held for resale, is stated at the lower of cost (weighted average) or market.
Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost. Equipment depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the related lease terms, whichever is shorter.
Accounts receivable-long-term result from product sales with extended payment terms that are discounted to their present values at the prevailing market rates at the time of sale. In subsequent periods, the accounts receivable are increased to the amounts due and payable by the customers through the accretion of interest income on the unpaid accounts receivable due in future years. The amounts under these long-term accounts receivable due within one year are reclassified to the current portion of accounts receivable.
Comprehensive income consists of net income for the period, the impact of unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments The foreign currency translation adjustments are not currently adjusted for income taxes as they relate to permanent investments in international subsidiaries.
Revenue on product (software and hardware) and maintenance and subscription agreement sales are recognized once four criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, (2) the price is fixed and determinable, (3) delivery (software and hardware) or fulfillment (maintenance and subscription) has occurred, and (4) there is reasonable assurance of collection of the sales proceeds. Revenues from the sales of hardware products, software products and licenses, maintenance and subscription agreements are recognized on a gross basis upon delivery or fulfillment with the selling price to the customer recorded as sales and the acquisition cost of the product recorded as cost of sales.
Product delivery to customers occur in a variety of ways, including (i) as physical product shipped from the Company’s warehouse, (ii) via drop-shipment by the vendor, or (iii) via electronic delivery for software licenses. The Company leverages drop-ship arrangements with many of its vendors and suppliers to deliver products to customers without having to physically hold the inventory at its warehouse, thereby increasing efficiency and reducing costs. The Company recognizes revenue for drop-ship arrangements on a gross basis. Furthermore, in such drop-ship arrangements, the Company negotiates price with the customer, pays the supplier directly for the product shipped and bears credit risk of collecting payment from its customers. Maintenance and subscription agreements allow customers to access software and obtain technical support directly from the software publisher and to upgrade, at no additional cost, to the latest technology if new applications are introduced by the software publisher during the period that the maintenance and subscription agreement is in effect. The Company serves as the principal with the customer and, therefore, recognizes the sale and cost of sale of the product upon receiving notification from the supplier that the product has shipped or the contract has been fulfilled.
Sales are recorded net of discounts, rebates, and returns. Vendor rebates and price protection are recorded when earned as a reduction to cost of sales or merchandise inventory, as applicable.
Cooperative reimbursements from vendors, which are earned and available, are recorded in the period the related advertising expenditure is incurred. Cooperative reimbursements are recorded as a reduction of cost of sales in accordance with FASB ASC Topic 605-50 “Accounting by a Customer (including reseller) for Certain Consideration Received from a Vendor.” Provisions for returns are estimated based on historical sales returns and credit memo analysis which are adjusted to actual on a periodic basis.
The Company has stockholder-approved stock incentive plans for employees and directors. Stock- based compensation is recognized based on the grant date fair value and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. This method also requires a valuation allowance against the net deferred tax asset if, based on the weighted available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense when assessed. The Company accounts for uncertainties in accordance with FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. This standard clarified the accounting for uncertainties in income taxes. The standard prescribes criteria for recognition and measurement of tax positions. It also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, and disclosures related to income taxes associated with uncertain tax positions. The Company classifies all deferred tax asset or liabilities as non-current on the balance sheet in accordance with ASU 2015-17 which the Company has adopted.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued guidance for revenue recognition for contracts, superseding the previous revenue recognition requirements, along with most existing industry-specific guidance. The guidance requires an entity to review contracts in five steps: 1) identify the contract, 2) identify performance obligations, 3) determine the transaction price, 4) allocate the transaction price, and 5) recognize revenue. The new standard will result in enhanced disclosures regarding the nature, amount, timing and uncertainty of revenue arising from contracts with customers. In August 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ASU 2015-14 (“ASU 2015-14”) which deferred the effective date of the new standard by one year. Along with the deferral of the effective date, ASU No. 2015-14 allows early application as of the original effective date. Entities are allowed to transition to the new standard by either recasting prior periods or recognizing the cumulative effect as of the beginning of the period of adoption. The standard and related amendments will be effective for the Company for its annual reporting period beginning January 1, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company is in the process of developing its conclusions on several aspects of the standard including principal versus agent considerations, identification of performance obligations, the determination of when control of goods and services transfers to the Company’s customers, which transition approach will be applied and the estimated impact it will have on our consolidated financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2015-11, "Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (Topic 330)", ("ASU 2015-11"). Topic 330, Inventory, currently requires an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or market, with market value represented by replacement cost, net realizable value or net realizable value less a normal profit margin. The amendments in ASU 2015-11 require an entity to measure inventory at the lower of cost or net realizable value. ASU 2015-11 is effective for reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We do not expect the adoption of this new accounting pronouncement, will have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update ("ASU") 2016-09, Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting ("ASU 2016-09"). ASU 2016-09 simplifies several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment transactions, including the income tax consequences, classification of awards as either equity or liabilities and classification on the statement of cash flows. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. We do not expect the adoption of this new accounting pronouncement to have a significant impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases ("ASU 2016-02"). ASU 2016-02 supersedes the lease guidance under FASB Accounting Standards Codification ("ASC") Topic 840, Leases, resulting in the creation of FASB ASC Topic 842, Leases. ASU 2016-02 requires a lessee to recognize in the statement of financial position a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing its right to use the underlying asset for the lease term for both finance and operating leases. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently assessing the potential impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on its consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326) ("ASU No. 2016-13"). ASU No. 2016-13 revises the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. ASU No. 2016-13 is effective for the company in the first quarter of 2020, with early adoption permitted, and is to be applied using a modified retrospective approach. The company is currently evaluating the potential effects of adopting the provisions of ASU No. 2016-13 on it consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (“ASU 2016-15”) ASU 2016-15 which reduces diversity in practice in how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. The new standard will become effective for the Company beginning with the first quarter of 2018, with early adoption permitted. The adoption of this guidance will not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In October 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-16, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Intra-Entity Transfers of Assets Other Than Inventory.” This amendment is intended to improve accounting for the income tax consequences of intra-entity transfers of assets other than inventory. In accordance with this guidance, an entity should recognize the income tax consequences of an intra-entity transfer of an asset other than inventory when the transfer occurs. The ASU is effective for the Company beginning in fiscal 2019. Early adoption is permitted in fiscal 2018 with modified retrospective application. The Company is continuing to evaluate the impact of the adoption of this guidance on its financial statements.