Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Principles of Consolidation and Operations
The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Wayside Technology Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated.
The Company accounts for business combinations using the acquisition method of accounting, which allocates the fair value of the purchase consideration to the tangible and intangible assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. When determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, management makes significant estimates and assumptions. The Company may utilize third-party valuation specialists to assist the Company in the allocation. Initial purchase price allocations are subject to revision within the measurement period, not to exceed one year from the date of acquisition. Acquisition-related expenses and transaction costs associated with business combinations are expensed as incurred.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”) requires management to make extensive use of certain estimates and assumptions which affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. The significant areas of estimation include but are not limited to accounting for allowance for doubtful accounts, sales returns, allocation of revenue in multiple deliverable arrangements, principal vs. agent considerations, discount rates applicable to long term receivables, inventory obsolescence, income taxes, depreciation, amortization of intangible assets, contingencies and stock-based compensation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Net Income Per Common Share
Our basic and diluted earnings per share are computed using the two-class method. The two-class method is an earnings allocation method that determines net income per share for each class of common stock and participating securities according to their participation rights in dividends and undistributed earnings or losses. Non-vested restricted stock awards that include non-forfeitable rights to dividends are considered participating securities. Per share amounts are computed by dividing net income available to common shareholders by the weighted average shares outstanding during each period. Diluted and basic earnings per share are the same because the restricted shares are the only potentially dilutive security.
A reconciliation of the numerators and denominators of the basic and diluted per share computations follows:
The Company considers all liquid short-term investments with maturities of 90 days or less when purchased to be cash equivalents.
Accounts receivable principally represents amounts collectible from our customers. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers but generally does not require collateral to support any outstanding obligation. From time to time, we sell accounts receivable to a financial institution on a non-recourse basis for cash, less a discount. The Company has no significant retained interests or servicing liabilities related to the accounts receivable sold. Proceeds from the sale of receivables approximated their discounted book value and were included in operating cash flows on the Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows.
Allowance for Accounts Receivable
We provide allowances for doubtful accounts related to accounts receivable for estimated losses resulting from the inability of our customers to make required payments. We take into consideration the overall quality and aging of the receivable portfolio along with specifically identified customer risks. If actual customer payment performance were to deteriorate to an extent not expected, additional allowances may be required. At the time of sale, we record an estimate for sales returns based on historical experience. If actual sales returns are greater than estimated by management, additional expense may be incurred.
Foreign Currency Translation
Assets and liabilities of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries have been translated using the end of the reporting period exchange rates, and related revenues and expenses have been translated at average rates of exchange in effect during the period. Cumulative translation adjustments have been classified within accumulated other comprehensive income, which is a separate component of stockholders’ equity in accordance FASB ASC Topic No. 220, “Comprehensive Income”. Foreign currency transaction gains and losses are recorded as income or expenses as amounts are settled.
For foreign currency remeasurement from each local currency into the appropriate functional currency, monetary assets and liabilities are remeasured to functional currencies using current exchange rates in effect at the balance sheet date. Gains or losses from these remeasurements have been included in the Company's Consolidated Statements of Earnings. Non-monetary assets and liabilities are recorded at historical exchange rates.
Concentration of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations in credit risk consist of cash and cash equivalents.
The Company’s cash and cash equivalents, at times, may exceed federally insured limits. The Company’s cash and cash equivalents are deposited primarily in banking institutions with global operations. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts. The Company believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.
The carrying amounts of financial instruments, including cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable and accounts payable approximated fair value as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, because of the relative short maturity of these instruments. The Company’s accounts receivable-long-term is discounted to their present value at prevailing market rates at the time of sale which, approximates fair value as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
Inventory, consisting primarily of finished products held for resale, is stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value.
Vendor prepayments represents advance payments made to vendors to be applied against future purchases. Any amounts not expected to be utilized to apply against purchases within one year are reclassified to other long-term assets.
Equipment and Leasehold Improvements
Equipment and leasehold improvements are stated at cost or fair value, if purchased as part of a business combination. Equipment depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over three to five years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets or the related lease terms, whichever is shorter.
Software Development Costs
The Company capitalizes certain internal and external costs incurred to acquire or create internal-use software. Capitalized software costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful life of the software, which is generally four to ten years. At December 31, 2020 and 2019, the company had unamortized software development costs of $0.8 million and zero, respectively, which are included in "Equipment and leasehold improvements" in the company's consolidated balance sheets.
Accounts receivable-long-term result from product sales with extended payment terms that are discounted to their present values at the prevailing market rates at the time of sale. In subsequent periods, the accounts receivable is increased to the amounts due and payable by the customers through the accretion of interest income on the unpaid accounts receivable due in future years. The amounts under these long-term accounts receivable due within one year are reclassified to the current portion of accounts receivable.
We test goodwill for impairment on an annual basis and between annual tests if an event occurs, or circumstances change, that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount.
In a qualitative assessment, we assess qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not (that is, a likelihood of more than 50 percent) that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, including goodwill. If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine that it is not more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then the quantitative goodwill impairment test is unnecessary.
If, after assessing the totality of events or circumstances, we determine that it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, then we perform the quantitative goodwill impairment test. We may also elect the unconditional option to bypass the qualitative assessment for any reporting unit in any period and proceed directly to performing the quantitative goodwill impairment test.
In the quantitative impairment test, we compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. If the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, goodwill of the reporting unit is considered not impaired. Conversely, if the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, an impairment loss shall be recognized in an amount equal to that excess, limited to the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
Intangible assets with determinable lives are amortized on a straight-line basis over their respective estimated useful lives, which is determined based on their expected period of benefit. Intangible assets are reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of such assets may not be recoverable. Determination of recoverability is based on an estimate of undiscounted future cash flows resulting from the use of the asset and its eventual disposition. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future undiscounted cash flows, an impairment loss is recorded for the excess of the asset's carrying amount over its fair value. In addition, each quarter, the Company evaluates whether events and circumstances warrant a revision to the remaining estimated useful life of each of these intangible assets. If the Company were to determine that a change to the remaining estimated useful life of an intangible asset was necessary, then the remaining carrying amount of the intangible asset would be amortized prospectively over that revised remaining useful life.
Comprehensive income consists of net income for the period and the impact of unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments. The foreign currency translation adjustments are not currently adjusted for income taxes as they relate to permanent investments in international subsidiaries.
The core principle of the revenue recognition criteria is to recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This principle is achieved through applying the following five-step approach:
Identification of the contract, or contracts, with a customer — A contract with a customer exists when (i) we enter into an enforceable contract with a customer that defines each party’s rights regarding the goods or services to be transferred and identifies the payment terms related to these goods or services, (ii) the contract has commercial substance and, (iii) we determine that collection of substantially all consideration for goods or services that are transferred is probable based on the customer’s intent and ability to pay the promised consideration. We apply judgment in determining the customer’s ability and intention to pay, which is based on a variety of factors including the customer’s historical payment experience or, in the case of a new customer, published credit and financial information pertaining to the customer. The Company considers customer purchase orders, which in some cases are governed by master agreements or general terms and conditions of sale, to be contracts with customers. All revenue is generated from contracts with customers.
Identification of the performance obligations in the contract — Performance obligations promised in a contract are identified based on the goods or services that will be transferred to the customer that are capable of being distinct, whereby the customer can benefit from the goods or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available from third parties or from us, and are distinct in the context of the contract, whereby the transfer of the goods or services is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. To the extent a contract includes multiple promised goods or services, we apply judgment to determine whether promised goods or services are capable of being distinct in the context of the contract. If these criteria are not met the promised goods or services are accounted for as a single performance obligation.
Determination of the transaction price —The transaction price is determined based on the consideration to which we will be entitled in exchange for transferring goods or services to the customer, net of sales taxes collected from customers, which are subsequently remitted to governmental entities. Net sales are recorded net of estimated discounts, rebates, and returns. Vendor rebates are recorded when earned as a reduction to cost of sales or inventory, as applicable.
Allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract — If the contract contains a single performance obligation, the entire transaction price is allocated to the single performance obligation. Contracts that contain multiple performance obligations require an allocation of the transaction price to each performance obligation based on a relative standalone selling price, or SSP, basis. We determine SSP based on the price at which the performance obligation is sold separately. If the standalone selling price is not observable through established standard prices, we use judgement and estimate the standalone selling price considering available information such as market pricing and pricing related to similar products. Contracts with a significant financing component are discounted to their present value at contract inception and accreted up to the expected payment amounts. These contracts generally offer customers extended payment terms of up to three years.
Recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation — The Company recognizes revenue when its performance obligations are complete, and control of the specified goods or services pass to the customer. The Company considers the following indicators in determining when control passes to the customer: (i) the Company has a right to payment for the product or service (ii) the customer has legal title to the product, (iii) the Company has transferred physical possession of the product (iv) the Customer has the significant risk and rewards of ownership of the product and (v) the customer has accepted the product. Substantially all our performance obligations are satisfied at a point in time, as our obligation is to deliver a product or fulfill an order for a third party to deliver ongoing services, maintenance or support.
The Company records freight billed to its customer as net sales and the related freight costs as cost of sales when the underlying product revenue is recognized. The Company does not consider shipping to be a separate performance obligation.
The Company has stockholder-approved stock incentive plans for employees and directors. Stock-based compensation is recognized based on the grant date fair value and is recognized as expense on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period.
Operating segments are defined as components of an enterprise for which separate financial information is available that is evaluated regularly by the chief operating decision maker in deciding how to allocate resources and in assessing performance. The Company's operations are classified into two reportable business segments: Distribution and Solutions.
Treasury stock is accounted for at cost. Shares repurchased by the Company are held in treasury for general corporate purposes, including issuances under equity incentive plans. The reissuance of shares from treasury stock is based on the weighted average purchase price of the shares.
Interest, net consists primarily of income from the amortization of the discount on accounts receivable long term, net of interest expense on the Company’s credit facility.
The Company utilizes the asset and liability method of accounting for income taxes. Under this method, deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on differences between financial reporting and tax basis of assets and liabilities and are measured using enacted tax rates and laws that will be in effect when the differences are expected to reverse. This method also requires a valuation allowance against the net deferred tax asset if, based on the weighted available evidence, it is more likely than not that some or all the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense when assessed. The Company accounts for uncertainties in accordance with FASB ASC 740 “Income Taxes”. This standard clarified the accounting for uncertainties in income taxes. The standard prescribes criteria for recognition and measurement of tax positions. It also provides guidance on derecognition, classification, interest and penalties, and disclosures related to income taxes associated with uncertain tax positions. The Company classifies all deferred tax asset or liabilities as non-current on the balance sheet.
The Company’s foreign currency exposure relates primarily to international transactions where the currency collected from customers can be different from the currency used to purchase the product. In cases where the Company is not able to create a natural hedge by maintaining offsetting asset and liability amounts in the same currency, it may enter into foreign exchange contracts, typically in the form of forward purchase agreements, to facilitate the hedging of foreign currency exposures to mitigate the impact of changes in foreign currency exchange rates. These contracts generally have terms of no more than two months. The Company does not apply hedge accounting to these contracts and therefore the changes in fair value are recorded in earnings. The Company does not enter into foreign exchange contracts for trading purposes and the risk of loss on a foreign exchange contract is the risk of nonperformance by the counterparties, which the Company minimizes by limiting its counterparties to major financial institutions. The fair value of forward purchase contracts at December 31, 2020 was not material to the consolidated financial statements.
Certain amounts from the prior year’s financial statements have been reclassified in order to conform to the current year’s presentation.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326)” ("ASU 2016-13"). ASU 2016-13 revises the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. Originally, ASU 2016-13 was effective for fiscal years, and for interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019, with early adoption permitted. In November 2019, FASB issued ASU 2019-10, “Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815), and Leases (Topic 842).” This ASU defers the effective date of ASU 2016-13 for public companies that are considered smaller reporting companies as defined by the SEC to fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is planning to adopt this standard in the first quarter of fiscal 2023. The Company is currently evaluating the potential effects of adopting the provisions of ASU No. 2016-13 on its Consolidated Financial Statements, particularly its recognition of allowances for accounts receivable.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes” as part of its initiative to reduce complexity in the accounting standards. The standard eliminates certain exceptions related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The standard also clarifies and simplifies other aspects of the accounting for income taxes. The standard is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. The Company is currently evaluating the impact that this guidance will have upon its financial position and results of operations, if any.
No definition available.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef